Volume 42 Issue 3

August 2014

Synthesis and Characterization of Barium Ferrite Containing Magnetic Affinity Microbeads and Isotherm Analysis of Cr(VI) Ions Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions

In this study, barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) containing metal-chelate microbeads, hard-mag-poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-n-vinyl imidazole) [h-mag-poly(EGDMA–VIM)] (average diameter 53–212 μm), were synthesi- zed and characterized. Their usage as an adsorobent in removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. The h-mag-poly(EGDMA–VIM) microbeads were prepared by copolymerizing of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) with n-vinyl imidazole (VIM) and were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry vibrating magnetization measurements and swelling studies. The adsorption potential of microbeads for Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. They exhibited the highest Cr(VI) ions adsorption capacity at pH 2.0 and adsorbent dosage of 50 mg. To predict the adsorp- tion isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, seven single and two para- meter isotherm models were applied to experimental data. Three error analysis methods were used to evaluate the experimental data. Correlation coefficient, standard error, and sum of squares error of the estimate were to find the best fitting isotherm. 

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Bioecology of the Otter (Lutra lutra) in Kızılırmak River in Kırıkkale Province

This study was carried out between September 2000 and June 2002, and based on the assessment of feeding and habitat features of otter which lives in two localities with the borders of Kırıkkale provinces. The sheltering places and footprints of otter were determined and spraints collected from its territory were analyzed. Sixtyfour plant species were identified, representing the common vegetation cover in the area. Nine fish species, used as food by otter, were identified from Kızılırmak River. Observations for two years revealed that the otter live in respectively unpolluted stretches of the river whereas in the stretches from the point of refinery effluent onward. 

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Use of poly(HEMA-MAH)-Cu2+ Microbeads for α-Amylase Immobilization

In this article poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(l)-histidin methylester) [P(HEMA-MAH)] microbeads were prepared by suspension polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-methacryloyl-(l)-histidine methyl ester (MAH). Some properties of the p(HEMA-MAH) microbeads were determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling tests. Cu2+ ions were chelated on the p(HEMA-MAH) microbeads, then these microbeads were used in the immobilization of α-amylase in batch system. The maximum α-amylase adsorption capacity of the p(HEMA-MAH)-Cu2+ beads was found to be 14.88 mg/g at pH 6.0. The optimum temperatures for the immobilized and free enzyme were determined to be 30oC and 25 oC, respectively. Kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax) of the immobilized enzyme were also determined and compared with those of free enzyme. Reuse studies showed that the immobilized enzyme could reuse six times while retaining 76% of its activity. 

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New Floristic Records of Centaurea S.l. (Asteraceae) for 27 Squares in The Flora of Turkey

In this paper, 52 Cantaurea L. taxa are reported as new records from to 27 squares in the Flora of Turkey. 

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Theoretical Studies on Eight Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes with Salicylaldehyde and Aniline Ligands

Eight oxovanadium(IV) complexes with five-coordinate consists of salicylaldehyde and anilines which their abbreviated representations are VO(sal-anl) (1), VO(sal-clanl) (2), VO(sal-mxyanl) (3), VO(sal-ntranl) (4), VO(2222 brsal-anl)2 (5), VO(brsal-clanl)2 (6), VO(brsal-mxyanl)2 (7), VO(brsal-ntranl)2 (8) were optimized by using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP level with 6-31G and LANL2DZ basis sets in vacuum. Geometrical parameters, stretching frequencies and some quantum chemical parameters of all complexes were obtained from optimized structures. Bond distance and bond angle are not present in the literature were predicted with computational methods. The calculated V-O stretching frequencies of complexes were calculated at B3LYP method with 6-31G and LANL2DZ basis sets. The most compatible stretching frequencies with the experimental values were found with B3LYP/6-31G level. Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated to predict the biological activity ranking. Biological activity ranking of these complexes were found as (7) < (8) < (4) < (6) < (5) < (2) < (1) < (3) 

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PEG/Gelatin Composite Hydrogels as a Support of Enzyme Immobilization

In the recent years composite hydrogels have gained considerable interest as a biomaterial vehicle for biomedi- cal applications. The purpose of this study is to prepare highly biocompatible Polyethylene glycol (PEG)/Gelatin composite hydrogels for Glucose Oxidase (GOD) immobilization and evaluate the enzyme activity. PEG/Gelatin composite hydrogels were prapered by one step simultaneous technique based on UV-initiated free radical pho- topolymerization. PEG/Gelatin composite hydrogels were prepared by mixing Polyethylene (glycol) diacrylate PEG (30% - 50%) and Gelatin (22.000, 24.000, 40.000, 50.000, 87.500 MW) in the precense of ethylene glycol di- methacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) as photo initiator and also GOD (0.1 mg/ml) for enzyme immobilization. Enzyme activity studies revealed that GOD immobilized PEG/Gelatin composite hydrogels that contain 30% PEG-DA presented a better activity, lower Km and higher Vmax than GOD immobilized composite hydogels that contain 50% PEG-DA. According to these results composite hydrogels are thought to be adapted for different enzyme systems with the selection of the suitable ratio. 

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Biochemical and Histological Alterations In Reproductive Tract Tissues of Male Swiss Albino Mice Exposed Commercially Prepared Aloe Vera Gel Product

This study was performed to determine the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) from the leaves of Aloe barbadensis which is commercially available product in the market for human use, on male reproductive tract of Swiss albino mice. Male mice aged 4 weeks separated into four groups randomly received AVG by gavage daily for 28 days. The groups were as follows (n=5): control, ×0.5 dose group received half of recommended AVG dose, ×1 dose group received recommended AVG dose, and ×2 dose group received twice of recommended AVG dose. LH levels of mice in treatment groups decreased compared to control. Testosterone (T) levels decreased in ×2 dose group compared to control. Sperm head count did not change and sperm shape abnormalities in high dose group increased. Histo- pathological analysis showed that there were atrophic tubules, germ cell debris, picnotic cells and Sertoli cell vacu- olization in testes of high dose groups. In prostate glands, atrophic tubules and mononuclear cell infiltration were observed. There were no changes in malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels of testes among groups. The findings of this study indicate that oral usage of AVG may cause adverse effects on the male reproductive tract of mice by affecting the secretion of reproductive hormones. 

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Age, Growth and Sex Ratio of Cyprinus Carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) in A Lagoon Lake, Lake Karaboğaz (Samsun, Turkey)

The present study investigates the age, growth, length-weight relationship and sex ratio of the Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) collected in the Lake Karaboğaz. The ages of 250 carps caught between October 2008 and June 2010 ranged from I to IV. The female:male ratio was 1.37:1. The fork length of the females ranged from 150 mm to 570 mm, and of males from 145 mm to 442 mm. The weight of the females ranged from 61 g to 2354 g and of males from 56 g to 1227 g. The length-weight relationship showed an allometric growth (b=2.88; r=0.969). The data were compared with those obtained from other lakes in the Kızılırmak Delta. 

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Synthesis Novel Compounds Include Diazo and Tetramine Groups and Investigated Dyeing Properties on Polyester Fabrics

In this study, we have synthesized eight novel compounds used as dyes for polyester fabrics. Benzene-1,4- diamine, 4-(4-aminophenoxy)benzenamine, 4-(4-aminophenylthio)benzenamine and 4-(4-aminophenylsul- fonyl)benzenamine were diazotized and coupled with malononitrile to give phenylazo malononitriles (1a-d). Then, including tetraminopyrazoles compounds (2a-d) were synthesized by heating phenylazo malononitriles and hydrazine monohydrate in ethanol. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR spectroscopic tech- niques (1H NMR, 13C NMR) and elementel analyses. UV-visible absorption spectra of the compounds are discus- sed (2a-d). The synthesized 1a-d and 2a-d were applied on polyester fabrics to investigated dyeing properties. 

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Karyotype and Presence of B-Chromosomes in Red Fox from Central Anatolia

Conventionally stained karyotype and Ag-NOR banded chromosomes of a male red fox (Vulpes vulpes L., 1758) from Kırıkkale province in Turkey were determined. The chromosome set included 16 biarmed auto- somal pairs with two dot- like B chromosomes (2n= 34 + 2B, NF=67, NFa=64). The X chromosome was a large metacentric and the Y was a small acrocentric, almost similar in size of the Bs. The Ag-NOR regions were found in the telomeric regions of the long arm of three medium-sized metacentric autosomes. 

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Cloud Point Extraction and Determination of Cyclopiazonic Acid and Tenuazonic Acid in Tomato Juice

Acloud point extraction as a preconcentration technique was developed for the determination of a tenua- zonic and a cyclopiazonic acid in tomato juices. These mycotoxins were extracted and preconcentrated using Triton-X 114 as surfactant and determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The optimized extraction conditions were pH 2, 4% Triton X-114 (w/v), 1% KNO3 (w/v), 50°C as the extraction temperature and 30 min for extraction time. The extraction recoveries were found as 40% and 95% for tenuazonic acid and cyclopiazonic acid, respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was in the concentration range of 10 to 2000 ng mL-1 for both mycotoxins. 

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Comparison of Six Commercial DNA Extraction Kits for DNA Extraction from Wheat

In this study, six commercial DNA extraction kits were compared with each other in terms of DNA yield, DNA purity, amplification efficiency, the time spent and the cost per extraction. Extracted DNA samples were controlled by agarose gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometric measurement. The DNA samples were used as a template for 18SrRNA and chloroplast trnL–trnF intergenic spacer region amplifications to evaluate the PCR efficiency of DNA samples. Results showed that SIGMA GenEluteTM Plant Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit and QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit are the most efficient commercial kits for DNA isolation from both wheat seed and leaf samples. 

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Honey Bee Colony Losses in Isparta and Burdur Provınces of Turkey During The Winter of 2011-2012

The winter losses of honey bees have been recorded in many parts of the world since 2006. Scientists have been studied to find out the causes of honey bee colony losses and try to prevent the losses. Using questi- onnaire that was developed in COLOSS network studies, information on honey bee losses has been adopted in

Burdur and Isparta, Turkey. The aim of this work was to investigate the extent of this problem and to point out possible causes. In this study, we analysed 88 questionnaires completed by beekeepers. According to the data obtained during the survey, 35.6 % and 27.1 % colony mortality were recorded in Burdur and Isparta respecti- vely. Although there were no difference between two provinces in terms of colony-loss, statistical comparisons between districts of each provinces were determined to be significant due to the differences of geographical structure. Within the groups, the higgest percentage of beekeepers was the colonies between 1 to 50 (49.9% and 44.5%). There is no relationship between hive substitution and altitude with colony-loss rate for each pro- vinces, respectively. In conclusion, winter losses are thought to increase with interactions of factors such as pathogens, genetic factors and environmental factors that affect honey bees. 

401 - 407
In Vitro Determination of AChE Enzyme Activity from Coenuriasis Ill Sheep to Some Drugs

In this study, the blood plasma of healthy sheep and those with ‘‘coenuriasis’’, (popularly known as ‘‘gid’’), were examined and a comparison of the activities of brain homojenizat acetylcholinesterase have been made. Lastly, a kinetic study was done. The effects of drugs such as Ricobendazole, Amikacin, Gentamicine, Clindamicine and Ceftriaxone, on both healthy and diseased sheep’s enzymes were examined. The drugs Ricobendazole and Clindamicin can inhibit the symptoms but it was observed that the other drugs had no effect. While the I50 blood plasma value of Ricobendazole and Clindamicin drugs over the healthy sheep were 10.19x10-3 M and 36.14x10-3 M, the values of these drugs over the unhealthy sheep were found as 18.51x10-3 M and 6.90x10-2 M. Further K value of Ricobendazole and Clindamicine drugs over the healthy sheep were 3.00x10-8 M and 7.36x10-7 M respectively and the same values of these drugs over the unhealthy sheep were found as 2.62x10-8 M and 8.50x10-7 M. The I50 value of Rizkobendazol and Clindamicine drugs over the healthy sheep’s brain were 6.27x10-7 M and 7.81x10-7 M, and the same values of these drugs over the unhealthy sheep’s brain were found as 27.75x10-7 and 7.67x10-7. Finally, K value of Rikobendazol and Clindamicine drugs over the healthy sheep’s brains were 3.06x10-8 M and 1.82x10-6 M and the same values of these drugs over the unhealthy sheep’s brains were found as 1.02x10-7 M and 1.95x10-6 M. Changes in the enzyme activity of brain groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). 

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Monumental Trees in Akçakoca (Düzce, Turkey): Utilities of Natural Resources for Ecotourism

Ecotourism is typically a modern form of tourism in which learning about nature and help to protect of natu- re. Natural resources have significance in nature-based attractions in ecotourism. The monumental trees are one of these natural resources. In this research, the monumental trees in Akçakoca (Düzce) district are de- termined. Their morphological features and status are recorded. The present monumental point is calculated. Also, probable interaction between ecotourism and natural resources based monumental trees in Akçakoca are discussed. 

421 - 427
Seasonality of Insect Succession on Decomposing Dog (Canis Lupus Familiaris L.) Carcass in Samsun, Turkey: Their Importance in Forensic Science

The study was conducted at Samsun between June 2009 and June 2010. In this study ten species of Coleoptera and nine species of Diptera were observed during one year. Insect fauna and its seasonal differences associated with corpse decomposition in Samsun (Atakum region) were reported for the first time in this study. The data composed from this research are available for forensic investigations in North of Turkey. 

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Purification of Glutathione S-Transferase From Bonito (Sarda Sarda) Liver And Investigation of Metal Ions Effects on Enzyme Activity

The Glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC. catalyzes the conjugation of hydrophobic compounds inc- luding electrophilic centre to the glutathione (GSH). In this study, purification of GST from bonito liver for the first time and examination of some metal ions’ effects on enzyme activity were aimed. Purification procedure was performed in two steps as preparation of homogenate and glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography. The purity of enzyme was controlled by SDS-PAGE, and it exhibited two bands. It was found as heterodimer structure. Additionally, effects of some metal ions were examined on the enzyme activity. For metal ions showing inhibitory effects, IC50 values were calculated by Activity% [metal ion] graphs and Ki constants and inhibition types were determined via Lineweaver-Burk graphs. Pb2+, Cr2+ and Fe3+ ions had not any effects on the enzyme activity. Yet, while Co2+ activated the enzyme, Ag+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ showed inhibitory effect. Inhibitory order was found as Cu2+>Ag+>Cd2+>Zn2+ with the K values of 0.166 ± 0.046 μM; 0.0146±0.0047 mM; 0.0883±0.0335 mM and 1.39±0.44 i mM respectively and enzyme was inhibited noncompetitively by these metals. 

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Study on an Hydrophilic Interaction Electrochromatography Method for Separation of Sulfonamide Antibiotics

This study describes the preparation of a hydrophilic monolithic column and its application to sulfonamide antibiotics. The column was prepared by single step in situ polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in a binary porogenic solvent consisting of toluene and 1-dodecanol, inside a 100 μm-i.d. capillary. The resulting monolith was electrochromatographically characterized as well as SEM. The prepared column showed hydrophilic behaviour using thiourea and toluene as markers. The SEM images showed that the monolithic column composed of spherical particles of approximately 2 μm in diameter. Using this hydrophilic monolith as stationary phase, hydrophilic interaction electrochromatography of sulfonamide antibiotics as a new method was developed. The method was successfully used for the separation of sulfonamide antibiotics. Some parameters including acetonitrile (ACN) content, pH and ionic strength on the separation of the sulfonamides, namely sulfaprydine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfisoxazole and sulfadoxine were also investigated. A typical hydrophilic interaction separation mechanism was revealed at higher organic solvent content (ACN > 60%). 

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