Volume 45 Issue 3

December 2017

Immobilization of Thrombin to Alginate Gel and in vitro Application of Immobilized Thrombin

Bleeding is one of the biggest problems of humanity. Blood loss in road traffic accidents and surgical operations is an important cause of death. In this study, a product which could decrease bleeding time was developed. The production process of developed product was very simple and the product has commercialization potential. Thrombin was immobilized to calcium alginate beads via ionic interactions. In this method, negative charged carboxylate groups of calcium alginate interacted ionically with the positive charge of thrombin. Optimization studies of thrombin immobilization were performed for increasing immobilization efficiency and it was found to be 4.1% at the end of optimization studies. The thrombin immobilized calcium alginate beads were used for the recalcification time test. The recalcification time is an indicator of bleeding time. The thrombin immobilized calcium alginate lowered recalcification time to 50 percent. Developed product has a potential to stop bleeding.

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Copper(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Method: Isothermal, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

Study presents the utility of magnetic poly(ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) [m-p(EG- VPN)] microspheres as an adsorbent for copper (II) ion removal from aqueous solutions. The magnetic polymer microspheres were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm tests, swelling studies, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Adsorption studies revealed that the maximum adsorption capacity of m-p(EG-VPN) microspheres was 270.3 mg/g. Besides, kinetic, isothermal and thermodynamic properties of the adsorption were also investigated.

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The Using of Rsm on Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Grape Seed (Tunceli-Elazığ) as a Low- Cost and Eco Friendly Adsorbent

Grape seeds are waste products of the wine and juice processes in big amounts. In this study, grape seeds were used in Methylene Blue (MB) removal in synthetic wastewater by transformation into active carbon. Optimization process was completed using RSM. Four different parameters could affect the removal in selected process were identified and maximum MB removal was achieved by optimization of these parameters. Central Composite Design (CCD) software was used to calculate the effects of each parameter on response/removal. Conducted empirical and statistical studies determined that the values for independent parameters that achieved the maximum response were; pH 3.7, contact time 55.5 minutes, absorbent dosage 1.4 g, and initial concentration of 160 mgL-1. Using these parameters, MB removal from synthetic wastewater was conducted at an approximate yield of 99% with active carbon (Vitis vinifera seed) use. Furthermore, it was identified that the achieved model supported the conducted study by 82%.

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Composition of the Essential Oil of Endemic Salvia cryptantha (Lamiaceae) Montbret & Aucher Ex Bentham from Turkey

In this study, the essential oil composition of Salvia cryptantha Montbret & Aucher ex Bentham from Turkey. The qualitative and quantitative essential oil contents of the this species was determined and compared with each other. The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Salvia cryptantha was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The essential oils yield is 0.4 (v/w). Sixty three constituents were comprised the 98.7% of the total essential oil extracted from the Salvia cryptantha. The predominant compounds of Salvia cryptantha were determined as 1.8-cineole (21%), camphor (19.1%), α-pinene (12.5%), camphene (8.7%).

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Effect of Aspartame on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Some of Rat Tissues

In this study, the changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the liver, lungs, kidney and brain tissues were investigated in the rats administered aspartame intraperitoneally. Aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, was given to the rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Changes in enzyme activity were recorded at 12 and 24 h following the injection. The activities of AChE at 12 h for all doses were significantly higher in the liver and kidney but not in those of lung and brain. However, the activities in the liver and kidney at 24 h after treatment for 200 mg/kg were similar to that of control. Consequently, it was observed that aspartame caused increases in the activities of AChE in the liver and kidney during the first hours after treatment but lost its effect at later times.

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The Contribution of Protein Kinase C to Cyclopiazonic Acid- Mediated Potentiation of Serotonin-Induced Vascular Calcium Responses

We previously showed that serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor antagonist methysergide partially inhibited cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-potentiated and 5-HT-induced contractions suggesting the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated receptor internalization in attenuated antagonism. In the present study, the effects of CPA and 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide and ketanserin on 5-HT-induced calcium responses following PKC inhibition were further investigated. For this purpose, intracellular calcium levels were monitored in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells by spectrofluorometry using the fluorescent indicator fura-2. Cells were pre-incubated with specific PKC inhibitor D-sphingosine. In experimental aspects, spontaneous calcium oscillations hindering the monitoring of responses were determined in over confluent cells. 5-HT-induced calcium levels were significantly decreased in D-sphingosine-treated cells compared to control. CPA significantly potentiated 5-HT-induced calcium responses while ketanserin partially but insignificantly inhibited the potentiated responses in the presence of PKC inhibition. In conclusion, increased cell confluency may result in the generation of spontaneous calcium spikes indicating the importance of using optimum cell density for monitoring of intracellular calcium levels. The data suggests that CPA-mediated potentiation and diminished antagonistic effects on 5-HT-induced calcium elevations in vascular smooth muscle cells, are partially mediated by PKC.

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Biogeographic and Taxonomic Contributions to the Genus Sorbus L. (Rosaceae) in Turkey: Sorbusbuschiana and S. luristanica

Specimens of Sorbus buschiana Zinserl. were collected from Çankırı and Rize and given here as a new record for the Turkish Flora. Detailed description, distribution map and phenological observations are also provided here. The new record is assigned to VU category according to IUCN. Based on all of the common knowledge mostly accepted and well known literature, S. luristanica naturally grows in Turkey and this is currently accepted idea about the species. Opposing to the common acceptation, recent studies both in herbaria and field works in Turkey explained that the species doesn’t grow in Turkey. This paper also acknowledges the current situation of S. luristanica based on literature, herbarium and field studies.

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Cardiomyogenic Gene Expression Profile of 5-Azacytidine- Treated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Cell transplantation which aims to introduce healthy myogenic cells into the myocardium of the diseased heart is an important tool in myocardial regeneration therapy. The differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can be key role for this purpose. The present study aimed to evaluate cardiomyocyte gene expression profile of 5-azacytidine treated rat BM-MSCs. 5-Aza treated BM-MSCs started to form cell colonies and especially these colonies stained with desmin and cardiac troponin-T. qRT-PCR results indicate that the expression level of cardiomyocyte specific genes especially α- cardiac actin, Mef-2b, GATA-4 were increased in 5 μM 5-Aza treated BM-MSCs. According ELISA results, nanogram levels of cardiac troponin-I was measured especially 5 μM 5-Aza treated cells.

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Electrooxidation of Formic Acid Using Pt Nanoparticles Supported on Conducting Poly(Vinylferrocene) Polymer Support

Methanol as a fuel has some disadvantages such as toxicity and low electrocatalytic oxidation rate, therefore, alternative liquid fuels are of interest for fuel cell applications. Formic acid has been considered as an alternative which fulfilled the requirements such as ease of transportation and handling and high theoretical open circuit voltage. Platinum supported on poly(vinylferrocenium) (Pt/PVF) is a promising catalyst for use in direct formic acid fuel cells. This work deals with electrooxidation of formic acid on Pt/PVF catalyst system and comparison of methanol and formic acid. According to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, Pt particles are well dispersed over the polymer support. The Pt/PVF catalyst displays enhanced catalytic activity towards formic acid oxidation. When compared with methanol electrooxidation at the identical conditions, better results are achieved for formic acid oxidation.

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Effects of Salicylic Acid on Gaba Metabolism in Pepper Plants under Stress Conditions

Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential plant hormone that enhances the capacity of plants to cope with various stress factors. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important non-protein amino acid, which is increased by stress conditions. However, the interaction between SA and GABA is not well known. In this response the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SA on GABA metabolism in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) under individual and combined salt (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced osmotic stresses. Total chlorophyll content, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC, GABA content were analyzed in the leaves of pepper plants. Total chlorophyll content was decreased by combined salt and PEG-induced osmotic stresses. Individual SA, NaCl and PEG applications increased GDH activity. Under stress conditions, SA did not enhance GDH activity; however, GAD activity was increased within these conditions. Our results showed that salicylic acid application did not enhance GABA accumulation during individual and combined stress conditions. The dose and application process of SA could lead to this result. However further studies should be done to identify the interaction between SA and GABA under various stress conditions.

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Effects of Licorice on Some Selected Properties of Ice Cream

Licorice is used in food industry including production of candy and confectionary, for its healthy and taste characteristics, as well as technological properties. We attended to produce a new ice cream variety using licorice to increase consumption and provide an alternative taste in dairy industry. In addition to control (without licorice extract), four levels of licorices (0.5% A, 1.0% B, 1.5% C, 2.0% D) were added to the mixture. Licorice improved especially overrun, color and overall acceptability of ice cream. Considering physical, chemical and sensory properties, addition of licorice up to 1.5% was convenient for an attractive ice cream production.

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GC-MS Analysis of N-Hexane Extracts of Turkish Ankyropetalum Species

The chemical constituents of crude n-hexane extracts of three Ankyropetalum species, Ankyropetalum gypsophiloides Fenzl, Ankyropetalum arsusianum Kotschy Ex Boiss. and Ankyropetalum reuteri Boiss. Et Hausskn. from Turkey was determined using GC-MS analysis. Thirty three components were identified with Palmitic Acid Methyl Ester and Oleic Acid Methyl Ester as the most abundant components.

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Experimental and Computational Investigations of Decolourization of Rhodamine B in Aqueous Solution

The aim of the study was comparatively to investigate decolourization of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution using photocatalytic and ultrasonic processes. Also, computational investigations of RhB0 and RhB+- compounds were performed at HF/6-31G level in gas phase. Photocatalytic decolourization of RhB was studied using TiO2 and silver-loaded TiO2 (Ag-TiO2) as catalyst. It was found that decolourization by photocatalytic process of RhB increased with decreasing pH, and decolourization rate also increased in the presence of TiO2/ UV when compared to UV irradiation alone. Moreover, Ag-loading to TiO2 dramatically reduced decolourization time. The decolourization by ultrasonic process of RhB was also studied by using various salts and initial dye concentrations at various pHs and amplitudes. The decolourization by ultrasonic process of RhB was found to increase with decreasing pH, increasing amplitudes and addition of various salts to aqueous solution. It was observed that the decolourization decreased with increasing initial RhB concentration. The decolourization rate of the dye was monitored spectrophotometrically at 554 nm.

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Barium Ferrites Loaded TiO2 Usage In Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B Under Visible Light

In the present study, the barium ferrites sample was synthesizedby conventional citrate method asa first step, then it was used with different amounts in TiO2 synthesis via a soft hydrolysis method as a second step. Resulted photocatalyst samples were named as BaFts/TiO2. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The samples were tested in Rhodamine B degradation under visible light. Rhodamine B degradation efficiency was increased approximately 2.8 times with respect to the efficiency of the naked TiO2.

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Evaluation of Soil Characteristics and Environmental Parameters of Arid-Semi Arid (Desert) Truffles from Eastern Turkey

The ecological characteristics of arid-semi arid truffles from Eastern Turkey were investigated. The habitat and climate characters of the collection sites were determined and soil samples from localities were analysed. The light strength, temperature, humidity, air flow and air velocity at the areas were recorded to be 17.7 klux to 303.9 klux, 7.8°C to 24.3°C, 11.9% to 43.2%, 3702.6 ft³/min to 8941.6 ft³/min, and 3.6 km/h to 16.9 km/h, respectively. Environmental parameters match the climatic requirements, which is normal for the region when spring is concerned. The soil samples contained 42.59% to 91.46% sand, 4.49% to 38.43% clay, 4.04% to 25.91% silt, 8.54% to 57.41% silt-clay. The soil types included sandy, sandy-loam, clay-loam, loam-sand, sandy- clay-loam types. The soil examples were understood to have alkaline characteristics and had a lime content. The level of organic material and nitrogen was low, whereas the amounts of phosphorus, potassium and sodium were high. Based on our studies and observations, it is possible to claim that habitat, host plant, climate, and soil types are as important as precipitation for the healthy growth of truffles.

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The Influence of The Biopsy Procedure on The Quality of a Three-Dimensional Reconstructed Artificial Tissue

The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the initial biopsy harvest procedure on the quality of the final reconstructed tissue. For this purpose, two full-thickness human oral mucosa models were reconstructed by tissue engineering from epithelial cells and fibroblasts obtained via punch or laser biopsy procedures and they were analyzed by using histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the oral mucosa model reconstructed by using punch biopsy mimicked very closely the native oral mucosa both morphologically and histologically; on the other hand, laser biopsy resulted in an artificial oral mucosa with less desirable properties.

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Determination of Organic Acids in Natural and Commercial Orange Juices by HPLC/DAD

This study aimed to develope a simple reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of organic acids in natural and commercial orange juices. The chromatographic separation of these compounds was performed in a single run by using isocratic mobile phase consisting of 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH=2.2) at room temperature, with flow rate of 1 mL.min-1 within 10 min on Inertsil ODS-4 C18 column (250 x 4.0 mm, 5μm). An ultraviolet absorption at 210 nm and 245 nm was monitored. Linearity of calibration, accuracy, precision were examined as parts of the method validation. It has been found that the levels of organic acids in natural juices were higher than in commercial juices.

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Preparation of Quantum Dot Bioconjugates as Fluorescence Probe for Targeting and Visualization of Cells

Here, the bioconjugation and application of water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) for targeted cellular imaging were investigated. Human Anti-c-ErbB2 antibodies were bound to QDs for the targeting of these nanostructures towards the cancer cells. QDs and Anti-c-ErbB2/QD bioconjugates were characterized by fluorescence and UV–Vis spectroscopy and hydrodynamic sizing. The effect of QDs and Anti-c-ErbB2/QD bioconjugates on cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. To observe targeting efficiency of Anti-c- ErbB2/QD bioconjugates, fluorescence microscopy and was performed. Higher cell affinities were obtained by Anti-c-ErbB2-conjugated QDs which is an evidence that these are well-suited for targeting and imaging of cells.

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Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic/Flavonoid Contents of Phlomis pungens L.

Plants generate secondary metabolites, which could be used as novel therapeutic compounds. These com- pounds are well known for their beneficial effects on human health. Thus, it is important to evaluate total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activities of different plants. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract prepared from leaves of Phlomis pungens L. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract of the sample were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Antioxidant activity of Phlomis pungens L. was determined using different in vitro experimental models, which include DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC and potassium thiocyanate method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Phlomis pungens L. were found to be 68.4 mg GAE/g and 4.9 mg QE/g, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the sample was comparable to commercial antioxidant standards (BHT, - tocopherol and trolox). The results showed that Phlomis pungens L has moderate free radical scavenging and reducing capacity. Overall, this study discovers total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant properties of Phlomis pungens L

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Antimicrobial Activity of Thyme and Rosemary Oils against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains

Nowadays, a remaining scientific interest is exhibited to the antimicrobial effect of essential oils, due to their unique and complex biological potential. In this study, owing to the significance of the essential oils, investigating the antimicrobial properties of thyme and rosemary oils against 8 different Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains which have different antibiotic resistance patterns was aimed. For this purpose, antibiotic resistance analysis was carried out with 11 different antibiotics by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method and it was found that the strains were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline 100%; aztreonem, meropenem, imipenem 50%; on the other hand, the strains were sensitive to piperacillin, ceftazidime and amicasin. As a result of determination of antimicrobial potential of the essential oils, the thyme oil was found to be very effective as an antimicrobial agent but the rosemary oil was effective only two P. aeruginosa strains. While thyme oil was found to be more effective at high concentration (1/2), antimicrobial effect was detected even at the lowest concentration (1/20). Although there are some studies concerning about essential oils’ antimicrobial effectiveness on multidrug P. aeruginosa in literature, this study differs from others because of the thyme oil has been found to be very effective to multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strain (P5) which was resistant to 8 different antibiotic groups. Consequently, this study signalizes that with the antimicrobial effect of thyme oil, it could be used for the treatment of MDR P. aeruginosa infections in the near future.

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Gold Nanoparticle and Poly(Arginine) Modified GCE for Simultaneous Determination of Hydroquinone and Catechol

In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and poly(L-arginine) (P(AG)) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (P(AG)/AuNP/GCE) was designed to determine hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were utilized to characterize the P(AG)/AuNP/GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) results revealed that the modified GCE represented high selectivity for the simultaneous determination of HQ and CC. The linear working ranges of HQ and CC were in the concentration range of 5.0 to 600.0 μmol L-1 with the detection limits of 1.5 and 1.42 μmol L-1, respectively. The prepared sensor is a suitable tool with low cost for the rapid analysis of HQ and CC in the real samples with high recoveries.

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