Volume 41 Issue 2

April 2013

Determination of The Recreational Value of Botanic Gardens: A Case Study Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London

In this study, the recreational use value of the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) at Kew is determined through The Individual Travel Cost Model (TCM). For the valuation, a survey was applied to 460 randomly chosen visitors in the RBG and the results were evaluated using Linear Regression with SSPS. The number of visits was taken as the dependent variable (DV) in the model. Travel costs, entrance fee, distance from botanic garden to settlement, age and expenditures made during the visit in the botanic garden were evaluated as independent variables (IV). The negative β value of the variable of the distance to the settlement indicates that there is an inverse relationship between the distance to settlement and the number of visits in a year. Within the scope of the TCM in consequence of the analysis performed, individual consumer surplus was determined as £165/ person and total consumer surplus were determined as £268.950.000/year. This value corresponds to an annual recreational use value of the RBG. In addition, while 91% of the people who visited the RBG for the first time found botanic garden entertaining, 96% of those expressed that they were pleased with the visit. Activities such as exhibitions, picnics, meeting with friends, natural beauty and the pristine landscape offered to visitors all played a role in increasing the degree of satisfaction. 

87 - 102
Taxonomic and Biogeographic Contributions to Some Genera of Caryophyllaceae Family in Turkey ​

In this study, 8 taxa of Caryophyllaceae, belonging to the genera Minuartia L., Moehringia L., Petrorhagia (Ser.) Link and Silene L., have been discussed in taxonomic, biogeographical and endemism points of view. Three species belonging to the genera Minuartia (M. bulgarica, M. setacea ) and Petrorhagia (P. wheeler-hainesii ) are given as new records for the Turkish flora. Moehringia grisebachii was published as a new record for the Turkish flora previously. However, neither the supplements of the Flora of Turkey nor recently published check- lists considered this species. Furthermore, Minuartia garckeana, Silene frivaldszkyana, S. manissadjianii and Petrorhagia peroninii are discussed here in the light of the new data. 

103 - 113
The Bioecology of Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Bennett, 1835) in Kırıkkale (Mammalia: Rodentia)

This study is based on 30 (11 ♂♂, 19 ♀♀) specimens of Spermophilus xanthoprymnus collected in Kırıkkale provience. Specimens were divided into two age groups as young and adult, according to field note, fur colour, molar teeth worn and baculum shape. In this study, habitat, fur colour, behaviour, hair morphlogy, baculum shape, external and cranial characteristics, karyological features and exoparasites of Spermophilus xanthoprymnus were examined. Three animals (1 ♂, 2 ♀♀) were observed in terms of feeding and behaviour features in lab. The baculum shape was given and hair structure was determined as “crenate” type. In S. xanthoprymmus diploid chromosome number was 2n= 42, fundamental number NF= 81, and NFa=78. Data belongs to skull and baculum were compared with literature data and our specimens were represented the Spermophilus xanthoprymnus gelengius

115 - 124
Effects of a Sea Tide on The Biodiversity along Dikili Coastline, İzmir, Turkey

This paper presents the effects of a sea tide on the marine biodiversity of Dikili coastline. A sea tide in winter season of 2012 was observed during sampling for a national project along Dikili coastline. In the sea tide area, many marine organisms were about to be decomposed or already decomposed indicating the sea tide was not an instant event. Since some of the affected species, such as Holothuria sp., has economic importance, collection of these species before their decomposition can contribute much to the local economy. 

125 - 132
Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigation of 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine Tetracyanonickelate Complexes

New Hofmann-type complexes in the form of M(AMPM)2Ni(CN)4 (where M = Mn, Co, Ni or Cd; AMPM= 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine) were prepared in powder form and their FT-IR, far-IR, FT-Raman spectra are reported. The complexes are also characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analyses measurements. AMPM molecules are found to involve coordination through one of the pyrimidine ring nitrogen atoms. The spectral features suggest that the compounds are similar in structure to the Hofmann type two dimensional coordination polymer compounds, formed with Ni(CN)42- ions bridged by M(AMPM)2 2+ cations. Vibrational bands originated from both AMPM and Ni(CN)4 group were assigned. 

133 - 141
Bioecology of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758) in Kırıkkale Province, Turkey

The bioecology of the wild boar Sus scrofa was studied in the Turkish province of Kırıkkale using field observations and examination of 21 specimens collected from 2001 to 2003. Habitat, some breeding features, and morphometric data were recorded. The wild boar in Kırıkkale occurs mainly in forests, marshy areas and dense scrub. It selects scrub areas near hill tops as daytime resting sites. It feeds on some agricultural products in summer and is often hunted to prevent such damage. It produces its young in April and May. Morphometric data from specimens examined were consistent with the Turkish wild boar belonging to the nominate subspecies Sus scrofa scrofa but its taxonomy does merit further investigation. 

143 - 150
Investigation of Applicability Instead of Chemical Disinfectants of Euphorbia orientalis L. Extracts

In our study, disinfectant effects of Euphorbia orientalis L. were investigated that found as free in nature and collected from Corum/Turkey and environment. It was used three different soluble solutions (ethanol, chloroform and water) for extracts. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterecoccus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27853 strains used by disc diffusion method in determinate of antimicrobial activities of extracts. Water and ethanol extracts of plant were examined for antioxidant activities. And also, GC/MS analyses were carried out by chromatographic. On all microorganisms of ethanol and chloroform-plant extracts observed inhibition effects in different rates. The most sensitive Candida albicans strain and the most resistance strain Staphylococcus aureus were determinate in antimicrobial activity studies. An antioxidant activity of ethanol and water-plant extracts has observed in our studies. Antioxidant activities of water extract were higher than ethanol extract. At the same time, diphenic acid derivatives were found nearly the content of all extracts with GC/MS. 

151 - 157
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(N- isopropylacrylamide) Thermosensitive Based Cryogel

The aim of this study was to reveal the changes in the nanostructure of the thermo-sensitive poly(N- isopropylacrylamide-N methacryloyl-(L)-histidine) [poly(NIPA-MAH)] monolithic cryogel with changing temperature around lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of NIPA. Poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel was prepared by free radical cryopolymerization of NIPA with MAH as a functional comonomer and N,N-methylene- bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as crosslinker directly in a plastic syringe. Cryo-polymerization was initiated by N,N,N,N-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) pair at subzero temperature (-16ºC) in an ice bath. LCST of poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel was found to be 34ºC. The surface morphology and bulk structure of poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel was revealed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Poly(NIPA- MAH) cryogel with 60–100 μm pore diameter has a specific surface area of 42.6 m2/g polymer. Poly(NIPA- MAH) cryogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and swelling test. The equilibrium swelling degree of poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel was 22.08 g H2O/g for dry cryogel. The presence of NIPA makes cryogel morpholgy highly porous and differentiates it from conventional gels. 

159 - 166
Synthesis and Characterization of CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII Cation Complexes with Tyrptophan. Investigation of Their Biological Properties ​

The complexes of CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII metal cations with tryptophan amino acid were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, TG/DrTG-DTA, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods. The complexes were synthesized with high purity. The results of the elemental analysis indicated that the complexes contain two molecules of tryptophan as monoanionic bis-chelated ligands per mole formula unit that are coordinated acidic oxygen κ-O and amine grops κ-N and two moles coordinated aqua ligands in CoII, NiII and ZnII complexes, the CuII has just one mole aqua ligand so its geometry is square pyramidal. The others have octahedral geometry. 

Lastly biological activities of complexes were investigated as anti-bacterial, anti-microbial and anti-fungal. The synthesized metal complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. The results of these studies show the metal complexes to be more antimicrobial against one or more species. Also, total antioxidant capacity of the metal complexes were determined that of Zn(II)-trp and Ni(II)-trp complexes were found higher than other complexes. 

167 - 177
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