Volume 47 Issue 1

March 2019

Records of Chromosomal Data of Some Scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from Turkey

In this study, the karyological features of three species Mesobuthus eupeus and Mesobuthus gibbous was investigated from the family Buthidae and Euscorpius (Euscorpius) aladaglarensis from the family Euscorpiidae, ranging in Niğde Province. As a result of karyological studies, it was determined that the diploid chromosome number of Mesobuthus eupeus,Mesobuthus gibbosus, and Euscorpius aladaglarensis as 2n= 20, 28 and 88 respectively. Two buthid species have holocentric chromosomes, while the euscorpiid species has monocentric chromosomes. During first meiotic division, we observed multivalent in one male of E. aladaglarensis.

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Mannose Imprinted Affinity Cryogels for Immunoglobulin G Binding

The design, preparation and characterization of mannose imprinted cryogels for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in aqueous solutions were carried out. Methacryloylamido phenylboronic acid (MAPBA) was used as the functional mo- nomer since its boronic acid moiety has ability to interact with mannose groups on the Fc region of IgG. Free radical cryopolymerization technique was used for the preparation of mannose imprinted affinity cryogels towards IgG. The effects of medium pH, IgG concentration, ionic strength and flow rate on the IgG binding were investigated. The maximum IgG binding was achieved as 61.7 mgg-1 at pH 8.0. The prepared mannose imprinted cryogels exhibited excellent selectivity towards IgG in the existence of albumin and hemoglobin. Also, the result showed that the prepared cryogels preserved their stability even after 10 binding-desorption cycles.

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A Study on the Elytral Pattern Variations of Pachytodes erraticus (Dalman, 1817) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Lepturinae) from Turkey

In this study, variation of elytral pattern of Pachytodes erraticus (Dalman, 1817) specimens collected from different regions of Turkey were examined. Because of the pattern of the elytral spots are systemically im-portant in the family Cerambycidae, individual differences are presented for the first time from Turkey forP. erraticus with this study.

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Electroanalytical Studies and Simultaneous Validated Assay of Antihypertensive Compounds in Their Binary Mixtures Using Fast Electrochemical Technique

The electrochemical behavior of amlodipine (AML) and telmisartan (TLM) on a glassy carbon electrode were investigated in different aqueous solutions by using cyclic, differential pulse, and square wave voltammetric techniques. AML and TLM exhibited one peak (both of them) to the anodic direction. The oxidation process was found to be irreversible and adsorption controlled. To obtain good sensitivity, the instrumental and accumulation variables were studied using square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution, which was obtained as the most repeatabile and sensitive media. In this study; sensitive, fast and reliable method development was aimed for simultaneous detection of AML and TLM. This voltammetric method exhibited linear dynamic responses in the concentration range between 1.0×10-7 M and 1.0×10-4 M for AML and 1.0×10-7 M and 1.0×10-5 M for TLM, with detection limits of 0.654 nM and 22.6 nM, respectively. The proposed method is validated and successfully applied for the analysis of AML and TLM tablets.

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A Study on the Insect Fauna in Some Provinces of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolian Regions of Turkey

In the study, it was aimed to determine the insect fauna of some provinces of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolian Regions, with in the Nabucco Natural Gas pipeline (Şırnak-Sivas) biological diversity survey study. In this context, insect species were colleted from 25 different localities and one light-trap locality belonging to seven provinces (Sivas, Adıyaman, Malatya, Şanlıurfa, Diyarbakır, Mardin and Şırnak). A total of 301 taxa are given in the list belonging to 11 order and 69 families. Results were evaluated in the means of species diversity in this area.

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The In Vitro Impacts of Some Plant Extracts on Carbonic Anhydrase I, II and Paraoxonase-1

The presented article focuses on the in vitro inhibition of plant extracts on the human carbonic anhydrase isoforms (hCA I and hCAII), and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activities. Five different plants (Alcea rosea, Foeniculum vulgare, Elettaria cardamomum, Laurus azorica and Lavandula stoechas) were selected in this study. Methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of plants were prepared and the concentration-dependent inhibition degrees were found for hCA I and hCA II isozymes and hPON1 spectrophotometrically. Thus, IC50 (mg/mL) values were obtained for each extract. Methanolic extract of Elettaria cardamomum has the highest inhibitory effects (0.032 mg/mL). The water extracts of plants showed lower inhibitory impacts compared to the methanol and ethanol extracts.

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The Investigation of Protective Effect of Quercetin in Rats Exposed to Oxidative Stress by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin

In this study, 28 Wistar Albino male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) was intraperitoneally administered at the dose of 2 μg/kg/week, quercetin was administered at the dose of 20 mg/kg/day by gavages, and quercetin+TCDD were intraperitoneally administered at the doses of 20 mg/kg/day and 2 μg/kg/week, respectively. All applications were performed for 8 weeks. At the end of the eighth week, the rats were sacrificed and their heart and vascular tissues were taken for biochemical analysis (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels) by spectrophotometric method. As a result of the study, TCDD significantly decreased antioxidant activities and increased lipid peroxidation in rats. In contrast, quercetin significantly prevented the toxic effects of TCDD via increasing SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px levels but decreased the formation of TBARS. Therefore, it can be suggested that quercetin has the potential for treatment against the toxicity caused by TCDD or other environmental contaminants and can decrease the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, especially in humans.

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Effect of Surface Functionalization on the Transport Characteristics of Methyl Orange Through Track-Etched Membranes

In this study we have prepared cylindrical and conical nanopores on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) membranes using track-etching method. Later on we have investigated the mass transport of the chosen model dye Methyl Orange (MO) through these membranes. In order to enhance the transport flux of the dye, we have used surface functionalization using ethylenediamine (EDA) as the functionalization agent. We have confirmed the functionalization of the nanopore surface using electrochemical measurements. We have investigated mass transport through functionalized and bare PET membranes and shown that by attaching amine groups on the nanopore walls, we can indeed increase the transport of MO. Effects of pore size, pore geometry and temperature were investigated for the transport of MO. We have shown that PET, which has a negative surface charge at neutral pH, can be functionalized for a more effective transport of negatively charged analyte.

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Hydrophobic Microbeads for Diethyl Phthalate Removal from Aqueous Solution

In this study, hydrophobic poly(divinylbenzene-N-methacryloyl-L-tryptophan methyl ester) [poly(DVB-MATrp)] microbeads (average diameter = 150-200 μm) were used for diethyl phthalate (DEP) removal from aqueous solution. The poly(DVB- MATrp) microbeads were synthesized by suspension polymerization. The microbeads were used for DEP adsorption from aqueous solution to determine the effect of pH, initial DEP concentration, temperature and contact time on the adsorbed amounts of DEP. The effect of initial DEP concentration was investigated in the concentration range of 1-300 mg/L at pH 3.0. The experiments were conducted at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C and 45°C). The maximum DEP adsorption capacity was calculated as 251.3 mg/g at pH 3.0 (25°C). The adsorbed amount of DEP onto the poly(DVB-MATrp) was decreased with increasing temperature due to the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The kinetic studies demonstrated that the adsorption process reached equilibrium at around 30 min. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted the adsorption data. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were employed to evaluate the adsorption process. The prepared microbeads were repeatedly used for DEP adsorption without a significant change in the adsorption capacity. The poly(DVB-MATrp) microbeads were also effectively used in bottled, and tap water samples spiked with DEP.

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Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Endemic Astragalus argaeus Boiss. from Turkey

In this study, phenolic compound, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, in vitro antioxidant, antiradical, hydrogenperoxide scavenging, metal chelating, total reducing power, iron ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), copper (II) ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) activities of the extracts obtained from underground and aerial parts of Astragalus argaeus, which is endemic to Turkish flora were investigated. The ferulic acid has been identified as main compound in the both extracts. Both extracts showed weak antioxidant activities. The extracts showed weak antibacterial activity againstonly Pseudomonas aeruginosa among the 15 microorganisms by agar well diffusion assay. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell lines) and fibroblast cells during 24 and 48 hours were determined by MTT method. The extracts showed weak cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 after 24h.

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Vibrational Spectroscopic Study on the Hofmann-Td-type 1,4-Dioxane Clathrates

Two new 1,4-dioxane-Td-type clathrates of the form Cd(CPA)2M(CN)4.2C4H8O2 (CPA= cyclopentylamine; M = Cd or Hg) have been prepared in powder form and their FT-IR (400-4000 cm-1), FT-Raman (70-4000 cm-1), far-IR (50-400 cm-1) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analyses are reported. The spectral data suggest that the host frameworks of these compounds are similar to those of the Hofmann-Td-type benzene clathrates.

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Evaluating the Reactivity Superiority of Two Different Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Anions Using An Anhydride Electrophile

Reductive chemistries have widely been used to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). However, the reactivity of negatively charged SWCNTs (NC-SWCNTs), prepared by different reductive chemistries, to the same electrophilic reagent has not been evaluated. Here in, the first example of the reactivity comparison of two different NC-SWCNTs towards 3-nitrophthalic anhydride is presented, and two novel functionalized SWCNTs are synthesized and characterized. The NC-SWCNTs, that are denoted as [(nBu―SWCNTn)-•Lin+] and [SWCNTn-•Lin+], are prepared via n-butyl lithium and lithium naphthalenide addition, respectively, and are reacted by 3-nitrophthalic anhydride under dry conditions. The resulting functionalized SWCNTs are characterized by Raman, UV-vis-NIR, TGA-MS, XPS, and TEM. The reactivity of [(nBu―SWCNTn)-•Lin+] towards electrophilic 3-nitrophthalic anhydride is found to be higher than [SWCNTn-•Lin+]. This isprobably due to the high nucleophilic character of [(nBu―SWCNTn)-•Lin+] which bears lone pair electrons and electron- donating butyl groups.

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Electrochemical Performance of Fabricated Supercapacitors Using MnO2/Activated Carbon Electrodes

Peanut shells were subjected to pyrolysis and chemical activation to produce activated carbon with high specific surface area. MnO2 particles were synthesized on the activated carbon surface. Supercapacitors were fabricated by using activated carbon electrodes and tested by constant current charge-discharge, self-discharge, and life-cycle tests. MnO2 loading led to a significant decrease in specific surface area. The pore volume distribution calculations revealed that the MnO2 particles were in nanometer size. Because of the reduction of MnO4- Ions to MnO2 over the activated carbon surface, the amount of oxygen-containing surface functional groups, changed. Although the MnO2 loading caused a decrease in surface area, the specific capacitance increased from 49 F/g to 68 F/g.

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Heparin Immobilized poly(hydroxylethylmethacrylate) Cryogels for Lysozyme Purification

Heparin immobilized poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate) PHEMA cryogel was synthesized and applied for lysozyme purification from egg white. Firstly, the PHEMA cryogel was synthesized by cryopolymerization and then heparin was covalently immobilized on to the PHEMA cryogel with cyanogen bromide activation. The modification of PHEMA cryogel structure with heparin was further confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface and inner structure morphologies of PHEMA cryogels were studied and characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The surface area of PHEMA cryogel was found to be 25.2 m2/g. Heparin immobilized PHEMA cryogels were used in lysozyme adsorption studies to assess the effects of pH, lysozyme concentration, flow rate, temperature and ionic strength. The maximum lysozyme adsorption on the heparin immobilized PHEMA cryogel was found to be 48.73 mg/g from aqueous solutions under optimized conditions. 1.0 M NaCI solution was used for desorption of lysozyme in a continuous system. The reusability of heparin immobilized PHEMA cryogels was tested for 10 adsorption-desorption cycles. The Langmuir adsorption model was plotted and found fitted for adsorption studies. The purity of lysozyme from egg white studies was analysed by sodium-dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) using 12% separating gel.

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Preparation of Poly(DL-Lactide/ε-Caprolactone)–β-TCP Composites for Bone Tissue Repair

Poly-D,L-Lactide/ε-caprolactone (PDLLA-ε-CL) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) composites were prepared as an alternative for injectable filling material in bone tissue repair. β-TCP was synthesized by a wet precipitation method and characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Zeta-SIZER and Brunauer– Emmett–Teller (BET) analyser. PDLLA-ε-CL copolymer was synthesized under nitrogen (N2) atmosphere using ring-opening polymerization in the presence of stannous octoate as a catalyst. The chemical structures of copolymers were determined by FTIR and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) analysis. The average molecular weights of copolymers were identified by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). (PDLLA-ε-CL)-β-TCP composites were then prepared by loading differing amounts of β-TCP to the copolymer phase. The resulting composites were easily shaped by hand. The degradation profiles of the composites were determined by monitoring the changes in the molecular weight of the co-polymers over a period of 42 days. Degradation rate of the composites decreased as the percentage of β-TCP in the structure increased.

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Astragalus trojanus Stev. Batch Cultures: Cycloartane-type Metabolite Accumulation in Response to pH, Sucrose and Casein Hydrolysate

In this study, two grams of callus regenerated from stem and leaf explants of Astragalus trojanus Stev. were cultured in Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-D for four weeks and used as inoculum in order to investigate the effects of working volume and media composition. The highest biomass was obtained in 250 mL flask with astragaloside IV (1.66 μg/mg) and cycloastragenol (0.19 μg/mg) accumulation. Different concentrations of sucrose and casein hydrolysate (1 and 2 g/L) were also tested and the effect of pH was also investigated. Biomass accumulation cannot be enhanced, however, astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol content was ascended. The highest astragaloside IV (95.23 μg/mg) and cycloastragenol (5.93 mg/mg) accumulations were obtained at pH 6.8 and 2 g/L casein hydrolysate, respectively.

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