Volume 42 Issue 2

May 2015

Some Taxonomical Characteristics of Tadarida teniotis (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Turkey

This study is based on some records and observations concerning Tadarida teniotis obtained during the field works carried out between 1977 and 2012. Diagnostic characters, habitat, fur colour, measurements, karyo- logy and collection localities of the specimens were recorded. Specimens were divided into two age groups as young and adult. Specimens were compared to the literature in terms of statistical data and fur colour and it was concluded that our specimens represented the nominative form, T.t. teniotis

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Determination of genetic relationship between methicillin-sensitive and methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates by RAPD-PCR Method

The increase in the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) demands a quick and trustworthy characterization of isolates and identification of clonal spread within hospitals. The objective of this study is to establish variations of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns in S. aureus isolates which are collected from clinical isolates and a systematic relationship between them. Identification of isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by automated system and conventional phe- notypic methods. A total of 30 out of 47 isolates (64%) expressed methicillin-resistance. When methicillin-sus- ceptible and resistance isolates were compared, the least active agents were rifampin, all aminoglycosides and penicillines, tetracycline and amoxicillin-clavulonic acid for methicillin-resistance isolates. RAPD-PCR method with 25 different primers was analyzed on 47 clinical isolates of S.aureus. All the data were employed to cons- truct dendograms using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic (UPGMA). In this study, it is clear that, RAPD-PCR assayed with combination of five primers can be successfully applied to assess the genetic relationship between MRSA and MSSA isolates from clinical samples. 

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Extraction and preconcentration of sulfonamides in honey samples by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide coated silica gel and their determination by HPLC

Asimple, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive solid phase extraction method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-silica gel for preconcentration of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine and sulphameth- oxazole antibiotics prior to the determination by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. The effects of parameters such as type of surfactant, pH, amount of surfactant, flow rate, type and volume of elut- ing agent were examined. The detection limits of sulfonamides were in the range of 3-13 μg L-1. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.010-2.0 μg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to deter- mine sulfonamides in different honey samples. 

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Optimization with response surface methodology (RSM) of adsorption conditions of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions by pumice

Optimization of medium conditions for Cd(II) adsorption by pumice was studied through experimental designs. A multi step response surface methodology (RSM) including 26-2 fractional factorial design (FFD), steepest ascent and central composite design (CCD) was successfully applied to optimize the adsorption conditions for Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The most influential medium parameters were determined as pH, initial Cd(II) concentration and temperature via FFD. Then steepest ascent was used to determine the neighborhood region of the optimum point. Finally, CCD was applied to develop a response surface for optimization of adsorption conditions. The optimum conditions for Cd(II) adsorption were evaluated to be 7.01, 107.14 mg/L and 32.48°C for pH, initial Cd(II) concentration and temperature, respectively. A quadratic model was developed by CCD to represent Cd(II) ions adsorption. 

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In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils of Rumex crispus and Rumex cristatus

In this study, was investigated in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of Rumex crispus and Rumex cristatus collected from Corum province and around. Total antio- xidant status of essential oils prepared with ethanol and pure water were measured spectrophotometrically. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Eschrechia coli ATCC 25922, Enterecoccus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Can- dida albicans ATCC 10231 were used to the antimicrobial studies. The antimicrobial properties of samples were determinate with the disk diffusion and agar-well method. The total antioxidant status in the essential oils of all Rumex cristatus contained high levels was determinate according to Rumex crispus. The developing of test microorganisms of the essential oils of all Rumex crispus and Rumex cristatus extracts have been observed to inhibit varying degrees on the antimicrobial activity test. Furthermore, extracts obtained with ethanol is more effective according to chloroform extracts and more efficient results which have been identified. Enterecoc- cus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and fungal culture of Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The diphenic acid derivatives were found the content of two Rumex sp. essential oils with GC/MS analysis. 

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Electrochemical investigations on 5-methyl-4-(4|-substituted phenylhydrazono)- 2-(5-thioxo-4,5- dihydro-[1,3,4]oxadiazole-2-ylmethyl)-2,4- dihydro-pyrazol-3-ones

The electrochemical investigations on 5-methyl-4-(4|-substitute phenylhydrazono)- 2-(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-[1,3,4] oxadiazole-2-ylmethyl)-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ones having substitutions namely -H, -CH3 , -OCH3 , -OC2H5, -Cl, -Br were carried out in Briton-Robinson buffer solutions. Investigations were carried to study the effect of pH, height of mercury column, effect of substituents based on which reduction mechanism was proposed in acid as well as in basic medium. The compounds under investigation exhibit a well defined single wave in the buffer solutions of pH 1.1-7.1 and two waves in solutions of pH 8.1-10.1 in polarographic studies at DME. In cyclic voltammetric studies at HMDE one cathodic peak in lower scan rates and two cathodic peaks in higher scan rates were obtained along with an inverted peak in solutions of pH 2.1-7.1. Cyclic voltammetric studies at MCPE leads to one cathodic peak in solu- tions of pH 2.1-7.1 and two cathodic peaks in pH range of 8.1-10.1 along with an anodic peak in solutions of pH 2.1-7.1. A detailed comparison of results obtained in polarographic studies with those obtained in cyclic voltammetry at HDME and MCPE were presented in the studies. 

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The correlation between some metal concentrations and carbonic anhydrase activity in Tuna (Thunnus Thynnus Linnaeus, 1758) Gill

Today metal pollution is rapidly increasing with advances in technology and industry. Due to their bioaccumulative and nonbiodegradable properties, heavy metals are important contaminant of aquatic organism all over the world. Metal toxicity causes oxidative damage such as DNA damage, enhanced lipid peroxidation, the oxidation of protein sulfydryl groups and enzyme inactivation in the metabolism. In this study, we investigated in vitro effects of some metals on carbonic anhydrase enzyme which has vital role in fish metabolism. For this aim, The enzyme, was purified from gills of tuna with a specific activity of 1062 EU/mg proteins and 31% yield using Sepharose 4B– aniline–sulfanilamide affinity chromatography method. SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 29 kDa. Inhibitory effects of metals (Ag+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+) on CA activity were determined at different concentrations using the hydratase method under in vitro conditions. Consequently, in vitro inhibition rank order was determined as Ag+> Cu2+> Pb2+> Zn2+ > Cd2+> Co2+. From these results, we showed that Ag+ is the most potent inhibitor of CA enzyme. 

219 - 224
In vitro evaluation of various crude extracts of seeds of Trachyspermum Ammi (L.) Sprague (Ajwain) for their potential inhibitory action on selected bacteria of clinical significance

Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Ajwain) were evaluated for their antibacterial potential against several bacteria of clinical significance viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Extracts were found to inhibit one or more bacterial strains in different concentrations as observed by microbroth double dilution methodology. The pattern of inhibition depends largely on the solvent used for extraction and the organism tested. Extracts prepared in organic solvents were found more active than aqueous extracts. Furthermore, methanol extract was found to have greater activity against almost all the bacterial species tested. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive when compared to Gram negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be most susceptible followed by Bacillus species. Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus pyogenes were found to be most resistant bacteria, however, Escherichia coli showed mild sensitivity to some of the extracts. The study reveals the possibility of the presence of antibacterial components in the Ajwain seeds, thus it can assure an interesting future prospect in the world of medicine for the discovery of novel agents with antimicrobial potential. 

225 - 231
Influence of The Bacterial Preparation on Productivity of Soy

The skilled and laboratory regulations of receiving various forms of a bacterial preparation on the basis of phosphate-mobilizing bacteria are developed. For studying of their efficiency on fields of Bayserke-Agro LLP located in the territory of Almaty area in the settlement of Panfilovo large-scale field experiment with application of the developed biological products on the area of 5 hectares was made. 

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Thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) based cryogel: A SAXS study

The purpose of this study is to observe the structural changes of the thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- N-methacryloyl-L-histidine) poly(NIPA-MAH) monolithic cryogel with changing temperature around lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of NIPA by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS). Poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel was prepared by free radical cryocopolymerization of NIPA with MAH as functional comonomer and N,N- methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as crosslinker directly in a plastic syringe. Polymerization initiated by N,N,N,N- tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) pair at subzero temperature in an ice bath. LCST of poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel was found to be 34oC. Poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel with 60–100 μm in pore diameter have a specific surface area of 42.6 m2/g polymer. This porous cryogel form provides fast temperature response comparing to conventional gels. The surface morphology and bulk structure of poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel revealed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SAXS allowed the determination of nanoalteration of poly(NIPA-MAH) cryogel such as pore volume, wall thickness and pore shape with changing temperature. Scattering data were analysed both native form and in water at temperature range of 300C-400C. At two different temperatures 34oC and 35oC a detailed investigation on shape of pores and pore size; which indicating a recordable change, were also carried out. 

237 - 249
The systematic analysis of male and female genital structures of tribe Carabini, Platynini, Sphodrini and Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) species and their taxonomic importance

In this study, the structure of the male and female genitalia of fourteen species from the tribe Carabini, Platy- nini, Sphodrini and Zabrini have been examined. Aedeagus, parameres, hemisternites, basal and apical seg- ment of styli have been analyzed and illustrated and systematic differences among them have also been dis- cussed at the generic and species level in order to clarify their distinctive characteristics. 

251 - 261
Determination of acidic dissociation constants of L-phenylalanyl-glycine and L-alanyl-L-alanine in water using ab initio methods

The acid dissociation constant is one of the fundamental properties of organic molecules. In this study, den- sity functional theory (DFT) calculations with B3LYP combined with 6-31+G(d) basis set were applied for determination of acidic dissociation constants of L-phenylalanyl-glycine and L-alanyl-L-alanine. An ab initio procedure for accurately calculating aqueous-phase pKa values of the L-phenylalanyl-glycine and L-alanyl- L-alanine is presented. Formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the existent species and water has been analyzed using Tomasi’s method. In this way, it was determined that in alkaline aqueous solutions the cation, anion, and neutral species of L-phenylalanyl-glycine and L-alanyl-L-alanine are solvated with some molecules of water. Furthermore, the correlation between the pKa values of these dipeptides was investigated theoretically, and a comparable agreement was found with the experimental results. 

263 - 274
The first new cave fish species , Cobitis damlae (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from Turkey

The first new cave loach, Cobitis damlae, is caught from the Dalaman river drainage which is flowing in to the karstic plain of Western Turkey. There are caves, Keloğlan and Aslanini I and II in Dodurgalar province, con- nected with Dalaman river drainage c.a. 30 km. north of the catchment area. The new species probably passed through the surface water because of a heavy rain a week before we caught it. Cobitis damlae differs from its congeners by its mouth structure, fin rays formula, body without pigment, vestigial eyes. 

275 - 279
Cinnabarinic acid: Enhanced production from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, characterization, structural and functional properties

The white-rot fungus, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, produces the natural phenoxazinone pigment, cinnabarinic acid (CA), which is formed by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the precursor 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3- HAA). This reaction is necessary for the production of antibacterial pigment compounds by the fungus. In this study, the optimum conditions were determined to produce pigment from P. cinnabarinus in batch cultures. Isolated pigment was characterized as cinnabarinic acid by spectroscopic techniques, FT-IR; 1H NMR and LC- MS. Temperature-dependent change of CA was also investigated for the first time by using these techniques. It was observed that CA was converted to 3-HAA with increasing temperature and therefore its antibacterial effect was decreased. 

281 - 290
Genetic Identification of Algas on The Basis of The Analysis of 18s rRNA and rbcl of Genes Nucleotide Sequence and Development of Technology of Aquaculture Cultivation

Specific identification of green microalgas, perspective as feed additive for a fry stage of fishes was carried out. The culture was identified as Parachlorella kessleri. Technologies of aquaculture cultivation were developed: Parachlorella kessleri microalga, and also zooplankton: salt-water crustacean Artemia salina and fresh-water crustacean Daphnia magna in vitro for receiving feed additives for fishes. 

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