Volume 41 Issue 3

August 2013

Carboxymethyl Cellulase Production from Newly isolated Cellulomonas sp. in Submerged Fermentation

The present study dealt with the production of cellulase from locally isolated cellulolytic bacterium Cellulomonas sp which was isolated from soil. Cellulase enzyme production was carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask using potato waste as a substrate in submerged fermentation. The strain produced maximum cellulase with initial medium pH of 7, inoculum size of 2% (v/v) and incubation temperature of 35ºC for 48 h of fermentation period. Supplementation of 2% corn steep liquor had a profound effect on titer of enzyme production. The isolated bacterium Cellulomonas sp. ASN2 can be used as potential producer of effective cellulase which would be beneficial in industrial applications. 

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Different Part of Mushroom Tissue Used as Modifier in Carbon Paste Sensor

An enzymatic carbon paste electrode for determination of phenolic compounds is developed. The electrode material was prepared by mixing the monodisperse graphite powder with paraffin and with crude mushroom tissue which contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in its living environment. The ratio between components (carbon - tissue - paraffin), was investigated using SCV (Stare Case Voltammetry) techniques in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7, scan rate 50 mV/s. The derivative voltammogrammes are used to evaluate the biosensor response. The analytical performance was closely related with the carbon powder granulometry. The optimal results regarding the background current and sensitivity (1.57 mA/ppm) were obtained when carbon powder granulometry was 0.09-0.071 mm. It was also studied the activity of the PPO taken from four separated sections of mushroom body. Kinetic of enzymatic reaction resulted according to the Michaels–Menten mechanism. The biosensor response was tested toward different phenolic compounds. The best signal regarding the sensitivity of biosensor (S=2.04 mA/ppm), correlation coefficient (R2= 0.9997) and detection limit (0.7 ppm) was obtained for hydroquinone and the other studied compounds are listed in these order: hydroquinone > catechol > phenol > m-cresol > 4-chlorophenol > p-cresol > 4-nitrophenol > 3-nitrophenol. 

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Design and Newly Synthesis of some 1,2-O-Isopropylidene-α-D-Glucofuranose Derivatives: Characterization and Antibacterial Screening Studies

D-Glucose was converted into the 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-glucofuranose (1) in good yield. Removal of 5,6-O-isopropylidene group from diacetone glucose (1) was achieved by careful hydrolysis which provided the monoacetal glucose (2). Here we reported the selective acylation of 1,2-O-isopropylidene-α- D-glucofuranose (2) by the direct method using a number of acylating agents furnished the corresponding 3,5,6-tri-O-acyl derivatives in reasonable yields. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were ascertained by FTIR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were employed as test chemicals for in vitro antibacterial functionality test against six human pathogenic bacteria. The evaluation study revealed that the tested chemicals exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activities. It was also observed that the test chemicals were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than that of the Gram-negative microorganisms. 

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Complexation of Zn2+ with Vinyl Imidazole Containing IMAC Adsorbent: Potentiometric, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies

The aim of this paper is to synthesize a cross-linked polymer containing imidazole groups and study its metal ion complex properties under different experimental conditions. Thus, the use of the potentiometric method for the determination of the protonation constant of vinyl imidazole (VIM) and the stability constant of the Zn2+ ion complex of VIM was investigated. First to determine the coordination tendency of the vinyl imidazole ligand towards the Zn2+ ions in solution, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-n-vinyl imidazole) [poly(EGDMA– VIM)] microbeads (average diameter 150–200 μm) were synthesized. The microbeads were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, elemental analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS or EDX). Protonation constants of vinyl imidazole and the metal-ligand stability constant of vinyl imidazole with Zn2+ ions have been determined potentiometrically in a 0.1 M NaCl medium at 298, 318, and 338 K. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters of protonation and complexation processes (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) were derived and discussed. The formation kinetics of Zn2+-vinyl imidazole complex were also investigated, and the process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. 

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New records of Microfungi from Malatya province in Turkey

Three microfungi taxa, Pleospora lithophilae Gucevič on Pimpinella paucidentata V.A.Matthews, Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm. on Galium mite Boiss. & Hohen., Placosphaeria campanulae (DC.) Bäumler on Asyneuma amplexicaule Hand.–Mazz. var. angustifolium (Boiss.) Bornm., are reported for the first time from Turkey. The morphological and microscopical features with figures of these fungi are described based on the collected materials. 

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A Study on Determination of Insect Fauna of Karagöl-Sahara Natural National Park (Artvin, Turkey)

Karagöl-Sahara Natural National Park, settled on Şavşat county in Artvin province. The Natural National Park consist of two parts as Sahara and Karagöl. There aresome studies encountered related to the insect fauna of the study field and surroundings.Species, which are directly related to study field given from literature (1, 2), are mentioned with “Lit.” on Table 1.In the studies for the determination of insect fauna in Karagöl-Sahara Natural National Park, 139 species that belong to 40 families have been determined. 

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Taxonomic Status and Karyotype of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber, 1774) from Turkey (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)

This study is based on karyological analyses of nine Rhinolophus ferrumequinum specimens collected from Turkey between 2000 and 2004. It was determined that the diploid chromosome number (2n) is 58 and number of autosomal arms (NFa), 60 in this species. For taxonomical evaluation of R. ferrumequinum, a total of 239 specimens, collected from Turkey between 1974 and 2000, were studied. Our karyotypic and morphometric data were compared with the relevant literature and the results showed that the Turkish R. ferrumequinum seems to be represented by the nominate form. 

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An Unexpected Contaminant in Honey

In this paper microscopic analyses of a honey sample from Black Sea Region of Turkey was done to deter- mine its botanical origin. According to the results of microscopic analysis, the honey sample is evaluated as chesnut honey. Besides this an unexpected contaminant was observed in this honey sample. As well as pollen grains, Ustilago spores are also identified in the sample in quitely high values during the microscopic analysis. Members of Ustilago genus are plant pathogen fungus. Therefore, it is considered that these spores can be transported to the hive by honey bees while they are collecting pollen or nectar. Ustilago spores are reported as an allergen associated with bronchial asthma and with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In the honey, amount of observed spores were found higher than pollen grains’ and it is predicted that this honey could be hazardous to health. Consequently, our research exhibited the importance of microscopic analysis for honey quality and hygiene control. 

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Macrofungi of The Kızılırmak Basin (Kırıkkale)

In this study; the macrofungal diversity of the Kırıkkale-Kızılırmak Basin was investigated. In the investigation area; 38 macrofungi were collected in the years 2009-2011 in autumn and spring. As a result of the field and laboratory studies, 38 species belonging to 29 genera, 16 families and 2 classes have been identified. 2 of the identified species belong to Ascomycetes and 36 to Basidiomycetes

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On the Otter in Kırıkkale Province

This study is based on the populations of otter, Lutra lutra which is identified in Kızılırmak River and Delice River in Kırıkkale Province between March 2012 and April 2013. Otter is a nocturnal and semi-aquatic animal. Faeces analysis have shown that, fish, birds and mammals as vertebrates and crab, crayfish, snails and insect species as invertebrates are important in the diet of otter. The otter is an indicator species for the habitat that it lives. It was determined that otter was effected with water pollution orginated from industry and it was not found in regions where waste was mingled. In addition, the activities of sand and gravel quarries at rivers causes habitat loss and activity areas of otter is decreased. Dams built on the Kızılırmak River changes water regime and affects otter’s feeding behavior. This study revealed the existence of new otter localities. Lutra lutra must be protected within the framework of international and national legislations. Otter, which is a component of biodiversity, is among the priority species of conservation biology. 

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A Study on Determination of Insect Fauna of Başkomutan Historical National Park (Afyonkarahisar, Turkey)

Başkomutan Historical National Park, settled in Afyonkarahisar province, is composed of two sections; Kocatepe and Dumlupınar. Each section have both steppe and forest vegetations. In the studies for the determination of insect fauna in Başkomutan Historical National Park, 314 species that belong to 67 families and 9 orders have been determined. Based on the observations and data, 10 important sites have been determined as they need to be protected against human intervention. 

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Depletion of Albumin From Human Serum by Monosize Affinity Beads

The hydrophobic affinity ligand L-tryptophan immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) [m-poly(GMA)] beads in monosize form (1.6μm in diameter) were used for the affinity depletion of human serum albumin [HSA]. The m-poly(GMA) beads were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of Fe3O4 nano-powder. The epoxy groups of the m-poly(GMA) beads were converted into amino groups by using 1,6 diaminohexane (i.e., spacer arm). L-tryptophan was then covalently immobilized on spacer arm attached m-poly(GMA) beads. Elemental analysis of immobilised L-tryptophan for nitrogen was estimated as 42.5 μmol/g polymer. Adsorption studies were performed under different conditions in a batch system (i.e., medium pH, protein concentration and temperature). Maximum lysozyme adsorption amount of m-poly(GMA) and L-tryptophan immobilized m-poly(GMA) [m-poly(GMA)-L-tryptophan] beads were 1.78 and 172.9 mg/g, respectively. The applicability of two kinetic models including pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model was estimated. It was also observed that after 5 adsorption–elution cycle, m-poly(GMA)-L-tryptophan beads can be used without significant loss in HSA adsorption capacity. The elution results demonstrated that the adsorption of HSA to the adsorbent was reversible. 

279 - 288
Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

PAMAM dendrimers are a novel class of spherical, well-designed branching polymers with interior cavities and abundant terminal groups on the surface which can form stable complexes with drugs, plasmid DNA, oligonucleotides and antibodies. Biodegradability, non-toxicity, non-immunogenicity and multifunctionality of PAMAM dendrimer are the key factors which facilitate steady increase of its application in drug delivery, gene transfection, tumor therapy, and diagnostics applications with precision and selectivity. This review deals with the major topics of PAMAM dendrimers including structure, synthesis, toxicity, surface modification, and also possible new applications of these spherical polymers. 

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