Volume 41 Issue 1

January 2013

Acid Adaptation and Alliin Resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolated from Acid Pasteurized Garlic Paste

Garlic is often marketed fresh and without processing but, paste is a potential alternative that would retain the delicate and fresh odor of garlic. Allicin is one of the major antibacterial components of garlic. Salmonella was isolated from commercial type garlic paste using ISO 6579 method and identified by serotyping using Kauffman-White Scheme and antibiotic resistance patterns were evaluated using disk diffusion method. The strain was identified as Salmonella Typhimurium. Acid adaptation in citric and acetic acids, survival at pH 3 and Alliin resistance of the strain were evaluated. The strain was significantly resistant to lower pH and an increase in numbers of the strain was recorded. The strain was also resistant to Alliin, which may show that this strain would be the survivor of acid pasteurized garlic paste. This study aims to report an extreme Salmonella Typhimurium strain which adopts to acid and have Alliin resistance. The study underlines the resistance to natural antimicrobials that may cause a risk in public health. 

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Genus Scytodes Latreille, 1804 in Turkey (Araneae, Scytodidae) ​

Asurvey of the Scytodes Latreille, 1804 in Turkey is presented. So far, only two species, S. thoracica (Latreille, 1802) and S. velutina Heineken and Lowe, 1832 have been known from Turkey. Here, we record S. kinzelbachi Wunderlich, 1995 for the first time from Turkey, which was originally described from Jordan. All available information on these little known Scytodidae species is presented along with comments on their distribution patterns in Turkey. All species occurring in Turkey are illustrated and key to them is provided. Additional information, illustrations and interspecific comparisons are also provided involving some other members of the Scytodes from Middle East, which may actually have distribution ranges reaching Turkey; and from these species, we record S. univittata Simon, 1882 for the first time from Iran. 

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Genotoxic Effects of Dursban 4 in Allium cepa

Genotoxic effects of Dursban 4 (Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl), which is used commonly in agricultural areas were evaluated in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The roots of the plants were treated with 600 ppm, 1200 ppm and 1800 ppm concentrations of Dursban 4. Root tips after having grown to a certain length were stained according to aceto-orcein squash procedure. Metabolic variations in response to Dursban 4 toxicity was measured using physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymatic activities. Chromosomal aberrations, mitosis abnormalities, mitotic index and micronucleus assay of applied pesticides on Allium cepa roots were determined. 

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Enantioseparation of Ofloxacin by Ligand Exchange Capillary Electrophoresis Using L-Histidine Modified Nanoparticles as Chiral Ligand

Anovel application of chiral ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis (LE-CE) was developed with polymeric nanoparticles as a chiral ligand and Cu 2+ as a central ion. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by polymerization of N-methacryloyl-L-histidine methyl ester (MAH) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA). NPs were characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Average particle size and size distribution of NPs were also performed. Elemental analysis of MAH for nitrogen stoichiometry was found as 0.2 mmol/g polymer. CE systems that contain NPs in running buffer can be thought as pseudocapillary electrochromatography. Using this approach, enantiomer separation of ofloxacin was carried out by using LE-CE. The results demonstrated that NPs with chiral functionalized group interacted differently with structural enantiomers of ofloxacin. Factors affecting chiral resolution were studied. The optimum running conditions for the enantioseparation of ofloxacin were found to be a background electrolyte (BGE) (pH 4.7) containing 70% ACN, 10 mM CuSO4, 40 mM (NH4)2SO4 and 30 mg/mL NPs. Under these conditions, the enantioseparation of ofloxacin was successfully achieved. With this system, R-ofloxacin and S-ofloxacin (levofloxacin) were used to analysis capsules in the ofloxacin tablets.

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Ultrastructural Aspects of Corpora Cardiaca in Pimpla Turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Pimpla turionellae has been known as an important parasitic hymenoptera species used in biological control for continuous suppression of pests. As an endocrine center, Corpora cardiaca are a pair of neuroglandular bodies that secrete neurohormones in endoparasitic P. turionellae were observed by transmission electron microscope. Brain samples were prepared and examined under transmission electron microscope. Cells of these glands were filled with generally round shaped numerous granules taht contain electron dense material, most probably proteinaceous hormone. 

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Comparision of Two PCR-Based Methods in Typing of Clinical Staphylococcal Strains

The present study was carried out to investigate usefulness and effectiveness of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) in differentiating of staphylococcal strains and to compare the results of these methods with those obtained by antibiotyping. Staphylococcal strains, obtained from various clinical samples and collected from different wards, were characterized phenotypically by susceptibility testing and genotypically by using RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR methods. It was found that there was no significant association between genotypes obtained from RAPD and REP-PCR. Strains with a similarity coefficient of 80% and 70% or greater were grouped in a cluster for RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR, respectively. RAPD-PCR was found to be very efficient with the discriminatory index (DI) of 0.91 whereas discrimination index (DI) of REP analysis was found to be 0.88 with RW3A primer and combination of REP1R-I, REP2-I primers. The findings of this study indicate that RAPD-PCR reliably distinguish ward and source-related clustering. The RAPD primers provide to discriminate MRSA, MSSA and CNS strains whereas REP analysis could not be as discriminative as RAPD. Therefore, RAPD-PCR, evidenced to be inconsiderably more discriminatory than REP-PCR, is well suited for fast and accurate strain identification. 

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Antibiotic Resistance in Clinical Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of Three Different Hospitals in Ankara

In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from three different hospitals in Ankara, detected the occurrence of multidrug- resistance among MRSA using agar disc diffusion test. The greatest resistance was observed against ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, penicillin and tetracycline (fully resistant), followed by ciprofloxacin (98%), gentamicin and rifampicin (96%), clindamycin and eritromycin (72%). The least resistance was observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (4%), fusidic acid (2%), whereas vancomycin showed no resistance. For MRSA isolates, multidrug-resistance was common and only few antibiotics were active against these isolates. Therefore, successive surveillance on antibiotic susceptibility of MRSA is necessary for the determination of emerging trends and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies. 

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A Preliminary Study on Determination of Insect Fauna of Inkumu and its Surrounding Area (Bartın, Turkey)

In the studies for the determination of insect fauna of İnkumu and its surrounding area, 202 species belonging to 138 genera, 53 families and 11 orders have been detected. List of detected orders, families and species are given. 

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Total Proteolytic Activity on The Pupal Rectal Sac of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

This study is aimed to demonstrate histologically secretory materials of the rectal sac and also determine total proteolytic enzyme activity of sac’s fluid of silkworm, Bombyx mori considered to be responsible for adult eclosion from its cocoon. The rectal sacs of pupae were fixed with Bouin’s solution. The sections taken from the sac were stained by Paraldehyde Fuchsin and Periodic acid-Schiff dyes. Total protein concentrations and proteolytic activities of sac contents were determined by Bradford method at 595nm and azocasein substrate at 420nm, respectively. The secretions -proteinic and lipoid- were determined by different stains. As the sac grew up gradually, these two secretory materials were separated into darker and lighter phases. Protein concentration existed in the darker phase of secretion was higher than that in the lighter one. The total proteolytic activity measurements of the lighter phase were higher than the darker one, in both sexes. It was found that the activity of lighter phase in male is higher than that of female on the 10th day. This result supports that male moths escape earlier from cocoon than the female moths. Consequently, proteinic secretion synthesized by some cells of rectal sac could play a role in emerging from their cocoons of moths. 

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Synthesis and Characterisation of Certain Medicinally Important Novel Pyrazolin-5- ones

N-(Benzene sulfonyl)-3-methyl-4-(substistuted-arylhydrazono)-pyrazolin-5-ones have been synthesized by the reaction between diazonium acetoacetic ester and benzene sulfonyl hydrazide. Pyrazolin-5-ones so obtained were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra. 

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Ketorolac Tromethamine Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Nanotherapeutic System for Ocular Diseases

This study mainly focused on the preparation and characterization of Ketorolac tromethamine (ketorolac) loaded chitosan nanoparticles to improve novel drug carrier for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, allergic conjunctivitis and diabetic macular edema. For this purpose; first bare chitosan nanoparticles were prepared ionic co-precipitation technique. Prepared ketorolac loaded chitosan nanoparticles were characterized in three main part of the studies. First morphological evaluations were performed by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and zeta sizer, in second part physicochemical characterization were performed with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and finally drug loading-release studies were performed to get different formulations. At the end of the studies, 180-200 nm average size in diameter of the ketorolac loaded chitosan nanoparticles could be produced and proved the ketorolac loading with rather high loading efficiency (around 50 %). Additionally different release profiles could be obtained by using different amount of initial ketorolac concentration during the formulation. 

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